Finite two-dimensional proof systems for non-finitely axiomatizable logics

V. Greati, J. Marcos
To be published on IJCAR22's proceedings (LNCS)

The characterizing properties of a proof-theoretical presentation of a given logic may hang on the choice of proof formalism, on the shape of the logical rules and of the sequents manipulated by a given proof system, on the underlying notion of consequence, and even on the expressiveness of its linguistic resources and on the logical framework into which it is embedded. Standard (one-dimensional) logics determined by (non-deterministic) logical matrices are known to be axiomatizable by analytic and possibly finite proof systems as soon as they turn out to satisfy a certain constraint of sufficient expressiveness. In this paper we introduce a recipe for cooking up a two-dimensional logical matrix (or B-matrix) by the combination of two (possibly partial) non-deterministic logical matrices. We will show that such a combination may result in B-matrices satisfying the property of sufficient expressiveness, even when the input matrices are not sufficiently expressive in isolation, and we will use this result to show that one-dimensional logics that are not finitely axiomatizable may inhabit finitely axiomatizable two-dimensional logics, becoming, thus, finitely axiomatizable by the addition of an extra dimension. We will illustrate the said construction using a well-known logic of formal inconsistency called mCi. We will first prove that this logic is not finitely axiomatizable by a one-dimensional (generalized) Hilbert-style system. Then, taking advantage of a known 5-valued non-deterministic logical matrix for this logic, we will combine it with another one, conveniently chosen so as to give rise to a B-matrix that is axiomatized by a two-dimensional Hilbert-style system that is both finite and analytic.